English language

What is the English language? Where did English come from?

British Received Pronunciation (RP), traditionally delineated as the standard speech utilized in London and southeastern England English language, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is inextricably connected to the German, and Dutch (in Belgium called Flemish) languages. English originated from England and is the main language of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and different island nations in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. English is also an official language of the Philippines, and some other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. English is the first option of foreign language in most other countries of the world, and it is that power that has given English the position of a universal lingua franca. It is believed that about a third of the world’s population, some two billion people, now employ English. India is also an English speaking country, as Singapore is an English speaking country. 

English is one of the Indo-European family of languages and is consequently connected to most other languages spoken in Europe and western Asia from Iceland to India. Germanic, one of the language groups that originated from this ancestral speech, is typically bifurcated by scholars into three regional groups: East (Burgundian, Vandal, and Gothic, all extinct), North (Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish), and West (German, Frisian, and English). Though inextricably similar to English, German stays far more conservative than old English in its retention of a roughly complex system of inflections. Frisian, spoken by the residents of the Dutch province of Friesland and the islands off the west coast of Schleswig, is the language most closely similar to Modern English. Icelandic, which has altered little over the last thousand years, is the living language most closely similar to Old English in grammatical structure, still different from English. Middle English was a kind of English used after the Norman conquest. Middle English underwent different developments after old English. 

Modern English is stable (i.e., approximately invariable), whereas Proto-Indo-European, the ancestral tongue of most of the modern European languages (e.g., German, French, Russian, Greek), was changeable, or variable. For thousands of years, English words have been gradually simplified from the inflected variable forms detected in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Russian, and German, toward unchangeable forms, as in Chinese and Vietnamese. The German and Chinese words for the noun man are very good examples. German has five different forms of saying: Mann, Mannes, Manne, Männer, Männern. Chinese has only one single form: ren. English takes a middle way, with four different forms: man, man’s, men, men’s. In English, merely nouns, pronouns (as in he, him, his), adjectives (as in big, bigger, biggest), and verbs are variable. English is the only European language to utilize invariable adjectives; e.g., the old man, the old woman, in comparison with Spanish el hombre alto and la Mujer Alta.

In addition to the simplicity of inflections, English has two other main features: pliability of function and openness of vocabulary.

The pliability of the function of English has grown over the last five centuries as an outcome of the loss of inflections. Words formerly recognized as nouns or verbs by discrepancies in their forms in English are now often employed as both nouns and verbs. One can speak, for instance, of programming a table or tabling a program, reserving a place or placing a reservation, lifting a thumb, or thumbing a lift in English. In the other Indo-European languages, regardless of scarce exceptions in Scandinavian languages, nouns and verbs are never similar because of the exigency of separate noun and verb endings. In English, forms for traditional pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs can also act as nouns; adjectives, and adverbs as verbs; and nouns, pronouns, and adverbs as adjectives. One speaks in English of the Frankfurt Book Fair, but in German one must add the suffix -er to the place-name and place attributive and noun together as a compound, Frankfurter Buchmesse. In French one has no option but to make a phrase including the use of two prepositions: Foire du Livre de Francfort. In English, it is now probable to use a plural noun as an adjunct (modifier), as in wages board and sports editor; or even a conjunctional group, as in prices and incomes policy and parks and gardens committee. Any word class may change its function in this way in English: the ins and outs (prepositions becoming nouns), no buts (conjunction becoming noun).

The feature of openness of vocabulary in English does mean both free acceptance of words from other languages and the apt creation of compounds and derivatives in English. English adopts (without alteration) or adapts (with small change) any word required to name some new object or to indicate some new process. Words from more than 350 languages have come into English in this way. Like French, Spanish, and Russian, English regularly makes scientific terms from Classical Greek word components. Although a Germanic language in its sounds and grammar, the majority of English vocabulary comes from Romance or Classical.

How many people speak English?

English as a foreign language is the most-spoken language in the world, and it can be discovered scattered far and wide. While there’s no formal lingua franca for the planet, English is often employed to communicate across nations. In 2022, there were around 1.5 billion people around the world who spoke English either as a primary language or as a second language (foreign language), a bit more than the 1.1 billion Mandarin Chinese speakers.

Characteristics of Modern English

1.Phonology of English

British Received Pronunciation (RP), traditionally delineated as the standard speech utilized in London and southeastern England, is one of many forms (or accents) of standard speech of English throughout the English-speaking world. A very small percentage of the population of England is believed to use “pure” RP (although the actual percentage is as unknown as what constitutes “pure” RP) English. It is regarded as the prestige accent in such institutions as the civil service and the BBC and, as such, has deep connections with wealth and privilege in Britain.

The main differences between RP, as delineated, and a diversity of American English, like Inland Northern (the speech form of western New England and its derivatives, often widely known as General American), are in the pronunciation of specific individual vowels and diphthongs. Inland Northern American vowels occasionally have semi consonantal ending glides (i.e., sounds identical to primary w, for example, or primary y). Regardless of the ending glides, the American accent of English represents four forking from British English: (1) the words cod, box, dock, hot, and not are pronounced with a short (or half-long) low front sound as in British bard condensed (the terms front, back, low, and high mention the position of the tongue); (2) words such as bud, but, cut, and rung are pronounced with a central vowel as in the unstressed ending syllable of the sofa; (3) before the fricative sounds s, f, and θ (the last of these is the sound in thing) the long low back vowel a, as in British bath, is pronounced as a short front vowel a, as in British English bad; (4) high back vowels coming after the alveolar sounds t and d and the nasal sound in words like tulips, dew, and news are pronounced without a glide as in British English; in fact, the words sound like the British English two lips, do, and ooze in stooze. (In several American English accents, still, these glides do happen.

The 24 consonant sounds in English consist of six stops (plosives): p, b, t, d, k, g; the fricatives f, v, θ (as in thought), ð [eth] (as in, therefore), s, z, ∫ [esh] (as in sheep), Ʒ (as in pleasure), and h; two fricatives: t∫ (as in choke) and dƷ (as the j in the job); the nasals m, n, ŋ (the sound that takes place at the end of words like young); the lateral l; the postalveolar or retroflex r; and the semivowels j (usually spelled y) and w. These stay roughly stable, but Inland Northern American English is different from RP in two aspects: (1) r following vowels is kept in words such as door, flower, and harmony, whereas it is missed in RP; (2) t between vowels is voiced so that metal and matter sound very much like British medal and madder.

Like Russian, English is a chiefly stressed language. Four degrees of accentuation in English may be distinguished: primary, secondary, tertiary, and weak, which may be shown, respectively, by acute (´), circumflex (ˆ), and grave (ˋ) accent marks and by the breve (˘). Hence, “Têll mè thĕ trúth” (the entire truth, and nothing except the truth) may be conflicted with “Têll mé thĕ trûth” (whatever you may want to say to other people); “bláck bîrd” (any bird black in color) may be in stark contrast with “bláckbìrd” (that specific bird Turdus merula) in English. The verbs permít and recórd (only initial stresses are highlighted) may be contradicted with their analogous nouns pérmit and récord. A feeling for antepenultimate (third syllable from the end) primary stress, divulged in such five-syllable words as equanímity, longitúdinal, notoríety, opportúnity, parsimónious, pertinácity, and vegetárian, causes stress to switch when excess syllables are affixed, as in the periodical, which derives from the period and magical, a derivative of magic. Vowel traits are also modified here and in such word groups as périod, periódical, periodícity; phótograph, photógraphy, photographer. French stress may be retained in many words; e.g., attaché, bureau, detour, massage prestige.

Pitch in English, also known as a musical tone, specified mainly by the rate of vibration of the vocal cords, can be level, falling, rising, or falling–rising in English. In count one, two, three, four, one normally provides a level pitch to each of these cardinal numerals. In question One? Rising pitch is employed. Word tone is known as an accent, and sentence tone is called intonation in English. The end-of-sentence cadence is significant for uttering differences in meaning. Several end-of-sentence intonations are probable, but three are especially common in English: falling, rising, and falling–rising. Falling intonation is employed in completed sentences, direct orders, and sometimes in general questions which cannot be replied to by yes or no in English. Rising intonation is regularly employed in open-ended statements made with some reservation, in a polite petition, and specific questions answerable by yes or no in English. The third type of end-of-sentence intonation, first falling and then rising pitch is employed in sentences that donate concessions or contrasts. Intonation is in general less singsong in American English than in British English, and there is a limited range of pitch in English. Everywhere English is spoken, regional accents show distinctive patterns of intonation in English.

2.Morphology in English

A. inflection

Modern English nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs are variable. Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections are unchangeable in English.

Most English nouns have plural inflection in (-e) s, but that form indicates changes in pronunciation in the words cats (with a final s sound), dogs (with a final z sound), and horses (with an ending iz sound), as also in the 3rd person singular present-tense forms of verbs in English: cuts (s), jogs (z), and freezes (iz). Seven nouns have variable plurals in English: man, men; woman, women; tooth, teeth; foot, feet; goose, geese; mouse, mice; louse, lice. Three have plurals in –en in English: the ox, oxen; child, children; a sister; sistren. Some remain unaltered (e.g., deer, sheep, moose, grouse). Five of the seven personal pronouns in English have different forms for subject and object (e.g., he/him, she/her). Adjectives have different endings for juxtaposing (e.g., comparative bigger, superlative biggest), with several irregular forms (e.g., good, better, best) in English.

The forms of English verbs are not complicated. Only the verb (to be) in English has eight variable forms: be, am, is, are, was, were, being, and been. Strong verbs have five distinctive forms: ride, rides, rode, riding, and ridden. English regular or weak verbs usually have four: walk, walks, walked, walking. Some that their final letter is t or d possess three forms only: cut, cuts, cutting.

In addition to the above inflections, English uses two other main morphological (structural) processes—affixation and composition—and two subsidiary ones—back-formation and blend.

B. Affixation

Affixes, word elements linked to words, may either come before, as prefixes (do, redo; way, headway), or come after, as suffixes (dig, digger; way, wayward) in English. They may be English (overdo, waywardness), Greek (hyperbole, thesis), or Latin (supersede, pediment). Modern technologists tremendously support such prefixes as macro- “long, large,” micro- “small, little,” para- “alongside,” poly- “a lot,” and the mini- “small, tiny” with its opposite maxi-. The initial Internet era makes cyber- “of computers or computer networks” and mega- “vast” popular. Suffixes are stuck more inextricably than prefixes to the stems or root elements of words. Take into account, for instance, the extensive variety of agent suffixes in the nouns actor, artisan, dotard, engineer, financier, hireling, magistrate, merchant, scientist, secretary, songster, student, and worker. Suffixes may come to be affixed to stems completely fortuitously in English, but, once attached, they are probably to be ever-lasting. Simultaneously, one suffix can conduct many functions in English. The suffix -er implies the doer of the action in the words worker, driver, and hunter; the tool in the chopper, harvester, and roller; and the inhabitant in Icelander, Londoner, and Trobriander. It suggests things or actions associated with the substantial concept in the words breather, “hiatus to take a breath”; diner, “dining car on a train”; and fiver, “five-pound note.” In the words disclaimer, a misnomer, and a rejoinder in English (which come originally from French), the suffix tacitly stipulates one single example of the activities conducted by the verb. Usage may affirm capriciously. While a writer is a human being, a typewriter is a device. For some time a computer was both, but now the word is not utilized by people anymore in English.

3. Composition in English

Composition, or compounding, is about free forms in English. The principal compounds cloverleaf, gentleman, and (less visibly, due to the spelling) already indicate the collocation of two free forms in English. They are different from word groups or phrases in stress, juncture, or vowel quality or by a mixture of these in English. Consequently, which is previously distinct from all apt in stress and juncture, cloverleaf from clover leaf in stress, and the gentlewoman from gentle woman in vowel feature, stress, and juncture. In delineating the structure of English compound words it is essential to consider the relation of constituents to each other and the relation of the whole compound to its constituents. These relations fork widely in, for example, the words cloverleaf, icebreaker, breakwater, blackbird, peace-loving, and paperback. In English words, cloverleaf the first constituent noun is a modifier and modifies the second, as also in English words such as aircraft, beehive, landmark, lifeline, network, and vineyard. Icebreaker, still, is an English compound consisting of noun object plus agent noun, itself consisting of verb plus agent suffix, as also in the words firefighter, landowner, shopkeeper, bookkeeper, and timekeeper. The next type of English compound consists of a verb plus an object. It is scarce in English, Dutch, and German but regular in French, Spanish, and Italian. The English pastime may be juxtaposed, for example, with the French passe-temps, the Spanish Pasatiempo, and the Italian passatempo. In French the word passport stems from, meaning “pass (i.e., come into) port.” In Italian the word portfolio results from, meaning “bring leaf.” Other words of this kind are daredevil, scapegrace, and scarecrow. The next type in English, consisting of object noun and a present participle, as in the terms heart-breaking, breath-taking, life-giving painstaking, and time-consuming, occurs rarely. The last type in the English language can be noticed in blacksmith, Bluebeard, hunchback, blackboard, redbreast, and scatterbrain.

4.Back-formations, blends, and other types of word formation in the English language

Back-formations and blends are usual. Back-formation is the reverse of affixation, being the identical creation of a new word from a current word falsely believed to be its derivative. For example, the verb to write in the English language has been created from the noun writer on the reverse analogy of the noun actor from to act, and identically the verbs automate, bulldoze, commute, escalate, liaise, loaf, sightsee, and televise which are the back-formations of the nouns automation, bulldozer, commuter, escalation, liaison, loafer, sightseer, and television.

Blends are bifurcated into two groups in the English language: (1) coalescences, like bash from bang and smash; and (2) telescoped forms, called portmanteau words, like motorcade from motor cavalcade. In the first group are the words clash, from clack and crash, and geep, resulting from goat and sheep. In the second group, there are words such as dormobiles, dormitory automobiles, suburbs, or slum suburbs. A travel monologue turns into a travelogue and a telegram sent by cable a cablegram.

Simple shortenings, such as an ad for advertisements, that some time ago might have been sneered at by some are now in usual use in the English language. They are listed in English dictionaries along with their full forms.

4.Syntax in English

Sentences in the English language can be classified as follows:

(A) simple, possessing one clause and predication: Jimmy knows this country

(B) multiple or compound, possessing two or more coordinate clauses: Jenifer has been here before, and she knows this country

(C) complex, possessing one or more chief clauses and one or more subordinate clauses: Jenifer, who has been here before, knows this country since she has been here before.

 English simple, declarative, affirmative sentences have two main patterns with five subsidiary patterns within each.

 The sentences of the first pattern comprise three parts: subject, verb, and complement. In Jimmy knows this country (1), the complement is the direct object of a transitive verb; in Science is coherent knowledge (2), it is a predicative nominal group making the second component of an equation linked to the first part by the meaningless copula is; in Kim becomes the boss (3), it is a predicative noun connected to the subject; in The Pilot falls sick (4), it is a predicative adjective; and in Nothing passes unnoticed (5), it is a predicative past participle.

English simple sentences—first pattern

subject                verb         complement

1. Jane  knows   this country

2. Science            is             organized knowledge

3. Elizabeth         becomes             queen

4. The Pilot          falls        sick

5. Nothing           passes  unobserved

The table listing sentences (6) through (10) shows the second pattern in the English language. In the second main English pattern, each sentence contains four components: subject, verb, and two complements, first and second or inner and outer. In John gives Mary a ring (6), inner and outer complements consist of an indirect object (without English preposition) followed by a direct object; in The sailors make John captain (7), these complements are considered as a direct object, and appositive noun; in she has kept her record clean (8), direct object and predicative adjective are used; in The driver finds the road destroyed (9), direct object and predicative past participle are available; and in We want him to ask(10), direct object and predicative infinitive are parts.

English simple sentences—second pattern

Subject                 verb       inner complement          outer complement

6. John gives      Mary                      a ring

7. The sailors      make     John                       captain

8. She             has kept    her record              clean

9. The driver       finds      the road                  destroyed

10. We  want      him        to ask

One can seldom change the English word order in these 10 sentences without doing something else—adding or subtracting a word, changing the meaning. There is no better way of appreciating the importance of English word position than by scrutinizing the 10 frames illustrated. If, for example, in (6) one changes the places of inner and outer complements, one adds to and says, John gives a ring to Jenifer one does not say John gives a ring Jenifer. Some verbs, such as explain and say, never remove the preposition to prior the indirect object: Hana’s mother explained the details to her daughter. If, in (10), the inner and outer complements are reversed (e.g., We want to know you), the meaning is changed as well as the English structure

Apart from these fundamental rules of English word order, the principles governing the positions of adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions in English call for brief comments. For attributive adjectives the rule is easy: single words typically come before the noun, and word groups come after in English—e.g., an unforgettable memory but a memory never to be forgotten. It is also possible, however, to abandon this principle and switch groups to a front position in English: a never to be forgotten experience. In the ordering of English multiple epithets, on the other hand, some tendencies can be seen. English attributes indicating ever-lasting features come nearest their head nouns: long, black beard; six-lane elevated highway. The order in English multiple attributions is to be like: determiner; quantifier; adjective of quality; adjective of size, shape, or texture; adjective of color or material; noun adjunct, and noun. English instances are: that one solid, rectangular, oak dining table; these many fine, huge, white racehorses; those countless unforgettable, long, bright spring evenings.

English adverbs are more mobile than English adjectives. Adverbs of frequency tend to come immediately after the substantive verb in English (He is often late), before other verbs (He never knows), and between auxiliaries and full verbs (He can never tell). In this last instance, however, American English differs from British English usage. Most Americans would place the adverb before the auxiliary and say (He never can tell). Adverbs of time in English usually come at the onset or end of a sentence, barely in the middle. Special expressions naturally come before more general ones: The fair opened at 10 a.m. on November 23 of last year. An English adverb of place or direction comes after the verb with which it is semantically tied. Other English adverbs normally take end positions in the order of manner, place, and time: The bird flew suddenly [manner] from the tree [place] a few minutes ago [time].

Despite its etymology (Latin prae-positio “before placing”), a preposition in English may sometimes follow the noun it governs, as in all the world over, slept the clock round, and the whole place through. It seems a good place to live in seems more natural to most speakers than This seems a good place in which to live.

The above are principles rather than rules, and such structural flexibility in English makes it easy to find ambiguity in isolated sentences. John holding the car in the garage can mean either (1) “John sustained that car which was seen in the garage, and sold his other one” or (2) “John kept the car in the garage, and not elsewhere. On the other hand, such “obscurities” almost always vanish when the sentences are noticed in context.

Two approaches in which John gives Jenifer a ring can be mentioned in the passive in English are: (1) A ring is given to Jenifer by John and (2) Jenifer is given a ring by John. Regarding this same action, four types of questions can be made: (1) Who gives Jenifer a ring? The information looked for is the identity of the giver. (2) Does John give Jenifer a ring? The question may be replied with yes or no. (3) John gives Jenifer a ring, doesn’t he? Verification is sought for the questioner’s belief that John does give Jenifer a ring. (4) John gives Jenifer a ring? The form, which is different from the declarative statement only by the question mark in writing, or by rising intonation in speech, calls, like sentences (2) and (3), for a yes or no reply but suggests doubt on the part of the questioner that the action is happening.

Four English language skills

1.English Reading Skill

What Is Reading?

Reading is the process of watching written symbols and letters and discerning their meanings. It’s one of the four main language skills in English alongside listening, speaking, and writing. Reading is usually the third English language skill that they learn in their language – it comes after listening and speaking.

When students read, they look at written symbols (letters, punctuation, spaces) and use their brains to convert them into words and sentences that have meaning to them. They can read silently (in their heads) or read aloud – speaking every word that they read.

To be able to read, it is required to be able to:

1.identify the words which are seen (English word recognition);

2.understand what they mean (English comprehension);

3.connect words and their meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate (English fluency).

What are English Reading Skills?

Reading skills assist a child’s reading ability – it means, how well they can read and discern what they’re reading. There’s a wide variety of English reading skills that children develop and work on throughout their primary education and beyond.

These English skills can be placed into four main categories: decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and understanding sentences.

These main English reading skills make up the bulk of a child’s reading ability. Overall, they aim to arm children with the skills to be able to understand the meaning of what they read in English. It is not only essential for their English lessons and their other school subjects, but also for all areas of life beyond their education.

1. Decoding

Decoding is a vital step in the English reading process. Kids employ this skill to say words they’ve heard before but haven’t seen written down. The ability to do that is the foundation for other English reading skills.

Decoding is dependent on an early language skill named phonemic awareness. (It is part of an even broader skill called phonological awareness.) English phonemic awareness lets kids hear individual sounds in words (known as phonemes). It also lets them “play” with sounds at the word and syllable level.

Decoding also relies on connecting individual sounds to letters in English. For example, to read the word son, students must know that the letter s makes the /s/ sound. Understanding the relationship between a letter (or group of letters) and the sounds they usually make is an essential step toward “sounding out” words.

What can assist: Most kids learn the broad skill of phonological awareness naturally, by being exposed to books, songs, and poems. But some kids don’t. One of the initial signs of reading problems is the problem with rhyming, counting syllables, or recognizing the first sound in a word.

The best way to help kids with these English skills is through specific instruction and practice. Kids have to be taught how to identify and work with English sounds. Phonological awareness can be built at home through activities like word games and reading.

2. Fluency

To read fluently, kids need to instantly recognize words in English, including words they can’t sound out. Fluency speeds up the rate at which they can read and understand English text. It’s also important when kids encounter English irregular words, like of and the, which can’t be sounded out.

Sounding out or decoding every English word can take a lot of effort. Word recognition is the ability to recognize whole English words instantly by sight, without sounding them out.

When kids can read quickly and without making too many errors, they are English “fluent” readers.

Fluent readers read smoothly at a good pace. They group English words to help with meaning, and they use the proper tone in their voice when reading aloud. English reading fluency is essential for good reading comprehension.

What can help: Word spotting can be a big barrier for grappling readers. Average readers need to see a word four to 14 times before it becomes a “sight word” they automatically recognize. Kids with dyslexia, for example, may be required to observe it up to 40 times.

Lots of kids struggle with English reading fluency. As with other reading skills, kids need lots of specific instruction and practice to improve English word recognition.

The main way to help build English fluency is through practicing English reading books. It’s essential to choose books that are at the right level of difficulty for kids.

3. English vocabulary

To understand what is being read, it is needed to understand most of the English words in the text. Having a strong English vocabulary is a key component of reading comprehension. Students can learn vocabulary through instruction. But they typically learn the meaning of English words through everyday experience and also by reading.

What can help: The more words kids are exposed to, the richer their English vocabulary becomes. The students can be helped to build their English vocabulary by having frequent English conversations on a variety of topics. It should be tried to include new English words and ideas. Telling jokes and playing English word games are fun ways to build this skill.

Reading together every day also helps improve English vocabulary. When reading aloud, the child can stop at new words and define them. But also the child should be encouraged to read alone. Even without hearing a definition of a new English word, the child can use context to help figure it out.

Teachers can help, too. They can carefully choose interesting English words to teach and then give explicit instruction (instruction that is specialized and direct). They can engage students in conversation. And they can make learning English vocabulary fun by playing English word games in class.

4. Sentence construction and cohesion

Understanding how English sentences are built might seem like a writing skill. So relating ideas within and between sentences, is named cohesion. But these skills are important for English reading comprehension as well.

Knowing how ideas link up at the sentence level helps kids get meaning from passages and entire English texts. It also results in something named coherence, or the ability to relate ideas to other ideas in an overall piece of writing.

What can help: Explicit instruction can teach kids the basics of English sentence construction.

5. Reasoning and background knowledge

Most readers try to connect what they’ve read to what they already know. So kids need to have a background or previous knowledge about the world when they read. They are also required to be able to “read between the lines” and extract meaning even when it’s not indicated.

An example: A child is reading an English story about a poor family in the 1930s. Knowing the Great Depression can provide insight into what’s happening in this English story. The child can employ that background knowledge to infer and conclude.

What can help: The students can build knowledge through reading, conversations, English movies and TV shows, and art.

The students should be exposed to as much as possible, and talk about what has been learned from experiences and have gotten together and separately. Students should make connections between new knowledge and existing knowledge. And open-ended questions should be asked that require thinking and explanations.

6. Working memory and attention

These two skills are both segments of a group of potentialities referred to as executive function. They’re different but closely related.

When kids read, attention allows them to take in information from the English text. Working memory lets them keep on to that information and utilize it to obtain meaning and make knowledge from what they’re reading.

The ability to self-monitor while reading is also connected to that. Kids are required to be able to spot when they don’t figure something out. Then they are required to cease, go back, and re-read to remove any confusion they may have.

What can help: There are many ways which can help improve the students’ working memory. There are several English games and everyday activities that can build working memory without kids even knowing it.

To help increase the student’s attention, reading material should be looked for that’s interesting or motivating. For example, some kids may like English graphic novels. The students should be encouraged to stop and re-read when something isn’t clear.

What are teaching methods for reading in the classroom?

Reading strategies are teaching methods and activities that teachers and parents can use with their children to help develop English language proficiency and reading skills. Strategies that ameliorate decoding and English reading comprehension skills can be profitable for every student but are necessary for beginning readers, grappling readers, and English Language Learners.

Many different reading strategies can be applied to the English reading sessions in the classroom. To improve English reading comprehension, teachers can introduce the 7 cognitive English reading strategies for effective readers. These focus on encouraging skills such as activating, inferring, monitoring-clarifying, questioning, summarizing, and visualizing.

A sharp eye should be kept on visual clues: Does the English book or text include any images that represent the text? Readers use the clues from the English text to create a picture in their headS. They employ all their senses and imagination to build their mental image. Students should be encouraged to take a look at any visual clues in the English text to see if they give any clues that will help them to decode the text.

Sounding it out: If the students are struggling with a particular English word, it should be broken down phonetically and each sound should be separately said out loud. It should help them piece together tricky English words and understand how sounds interact.

Summarizing: Summarizing allows the reader to digest small snippets of English information in a simple structure and improve English proficiency. It means that they’re able to understand the basics of the English text without needing to read it all. Using summaries as a reading strategy can help children identify key information and phrases in an English text.

Asking questions: Readers should learn to ask and answer questions to clarify meaning and ensure they understand what they have read. To help with this reading strategy, children must be encouraged to ask questions before, during, and after reading.

Make predictions: Readers use written and visual clues from the English text as well as their own personal experiences to make predictions about what might happen before, during, and after reading. Using this strategy in reading helps children become more confident in understanding key features of an English story and piece together clues in writing.

Story mapping: Story mapping is a great reading strategy that teachers and parents can use when working with English fictional texts. The strategy uses templates such as this Story Mapping Boxes Worksheet to create a visual ‘map’ of the story plot, characters, setting, and themes.

Comprehension supervision: Comprehension supervision is a kind of metacognition. The strategy involves the ability of readers to know when they understand what they read when they do not understand and to use appropriate strategies to improve their English understanding when it is blocked.

8 Tips to Improve English Reading Skill Easily

There are some easy and efficient tips and ways to assist students to build reading skills to better discern the classroom curriculum.

1.Personalizing reading materials:

 Students can augment their understanding by observing how the material relates to their life. The students should make personal connections with the English text by writing it down on the page. Students should be helped to comprehend the English text by helping them see an association with current events.

2.Problem-solving perfection:

 Real-world problem-solving skills should be blended into the curriculum. The students should write out solutions to the problem and discuss their ideas as a class or in small groups.

All five senses should be engaged for different types of learners: It should be added in activities that reinforce learning and comprehension by using more senses as they read. Students should be reminded to read with a pen or pencil to annotate the English text. Students should take turns reading out loud? Projectors should be used to guide the lesson and write down questions for those who are visual learners.

3.Reading goals should be set to motivate students:

Each student should set his/her own reading goals. It can help them take action in building English reading skills and students will be more mindful of how they are improving their English proficiency.

4.Student should try to lead reading activities:

 The students process reading material and curriculum in very different ways. As English reading activities are implemented to help the class learn complex materials, it will be learned what works best for each student individually.

5.Revisiting and reread confusing English sentences and texts:

 Revisiting the parts that were confusing for the student (or that might simply need a quick refresher) can help the student gain a more complete picture of what he or she is learning. It also helps ensure the student can understand upcoming material in the English text. A record or list of words can be kept that the students are unfamiliar with or struggling with. The student can then be encouraged to look these English words up in an English dictionary to learn what they mean. Then, the ways should be found to be used in a sentence that the student can write themselves.

6.Talking about the topic:

When the student has finished reading, it should be talked about what he or she just read together. The students should be asked what they have learned and their thoughts. For longer reading materials, like English novels for book reports, discussion questions should be made which the teacher and student can talk about together after each reading session.

7.Break downing reading:

 Long, complicated reading can be more understandable by breaking it up into short pieces. Shorter parts will assist students to sustain the information as the class talks about the materials. It can also contribute to students building confidence in figuring out a convoluted subject. When teaching how to improve reading in short bursts, why not check out our 60-second read packs that offer short and manageable reading materials to build

8. English reading skills

the60-Second Reads to help the primary students practice their English fluency and comprehension daily. With solely 90-120 words and four short comprehension questions, this is the best way to remarkably increase English fluency.

2.Writing

« Writing » is the process of employing symbols (letters of the alphabet, punctuation, and spaces) to transmit thoughts and ideas in a legible form.

Goal or aim of a piece of writing: to express oneself, to provide information, to persuade, or to create an English literary work. There are four goals writers employ for writing. When someone transfers ideas in writing, they usually do so to express themselves, notify their reader, convince a reader, or create an English literary work. In college, two purposes are considered for composition style writing, and those are to inform or to persuade the audience.

Writing skills

1.Research

Before writing a single English word, it is required to research the topic on which it is being written. Gathering information that’s up-to-date and accurate is a key part of writing, and the process may help figure out what content to include. Depending on what is being written, research may involve learning about the target customer—whether it’s an overall target market or individual company—evaluating sources for strength and credibility, talking to experts, reviewing and analyzing data, or talking to other members of the team.

2.Planning and/or Outlining

An outline is a pared-down sketch of what points or topics the document you’re working on will cover and how to plan to structure the English information, which can give a roadmap to follow while writing. Creating and following an outline ensures the incorporation of all the important information in the right order and not being repetitive or straying too far from the point. It’s often more comfortable to get outside input on an outline than to write a complete report or identical only to figure out pivotal information was missing. Outlining skills can also be used to map out a non-writing project ahead of time or plan a process, which can be especially helpful if someone is delegating to or collaborating with others.

3.English grammar and Clarity

English grammar is the set of rules governing language usage. It’s what helps everyone to communicate identically and, as a result, discern each other more. There are many rules of English grammar, and definitely, the basic ones should be known. But knowing the obscure little quirks of English grammar usually isn’t necessary unless someone is a writer or editor. What is necessary is knowing how to construct a clear, easy-to-read, and understandable English sentence to be able to communicate in writing.

4.Revising and Editing

Editing is the process of correcting and changing a piece of writing to strengthen it. It can be revised or edited by making significant changes to the structure, organization, or content of a piece. Or a piece of writing might be proofread, checking for any misspellings, grammar mistakes, or typos. In other cases, sentences or paragraphs might be tweaked to flow better or reflect a certain tone. Great editing skills can be helpful in a wide range of professional situations—from checking a report or presentation for a teammate to recognizing an error in an email that is to be sent to the entire company.

5.English communication Skills

Even if writing isn’t a core part of someone’s job, it will likely be used to communicate in the workplace. It might mean composing an email, messaging someone on Slack or Teams, giving feedback, creating a meeting agenda, or giving an update on a project. Being able to communicate clearly through writing will help the work go more smoothly, increase the chances to get what is wanted and needed from others, prevent misunderstandings, and allow the colleagues to feel informed and included—ultimately strengthening the professional relationships.

9 Tips to Improve English Writing Skills as English language requirement

Good writing can help to stand out and get ahead. So how to improve English writing skills? Here are a few tips:

1. Brush Up on English Grammar Basics

Unless someone is a writer, editor, or similar, there is no need to know whether it’s who or whom or when to use an em dash vs. a semicolon. But the basics should be known: how to write in complete English sentences rather than fragments or run-ons; how to use quotation marks and commas in typical scenarios.

There are several free resources online which can be used to brush up on English grammar skills or answer individual questions, such as Grammar Girl and the content many English dictionaries put out on their blogs. Or paid courses on platforms like LinkedIn Learning and Coursera might be looked at. Plenty of free quizzes can be found to figure out the current level of skill and discover areas for improvement. There are also several English books that can be checked out: The Elements of Style by Strunk and White is a classic—but still widely used and, more importantly, short—overview of the most important English grammar rules, and Woe Is I by Patricia T.

2. Read (and Study) the Type of Writing which is to be improved

One of the best ways to improve English writing is to read a lot. It should be noted what writing resonates and look at that writing closely to see how it’s put together. Is it using a lot of technical English words? Is the tone conversational or more serious? Does the writer use a lot of short English sentences, mostly longer English sentences, or a mix of both?

Reading of any type can help get a sense of the different ways all the elements of writing can combine effectively. But it can be particularly helpful to focus on the same types of writing which are to be improved. Reading Shakespeare is great if someone enjoys it, but it’s unlikely to improve the emails. If it is to level up the marketing copy, technical reports, or written sales pitches, those are the types of writing which should be studied most closely.

3. Choose the Right Format for the Situation

If the boss is required to get quickly updated on what has been done in the last week. What’s the best way to do it? Is it best to open up a new Google doc and write a five-page report covering every detail? Probably not. It is possibly a better idea to type up an email with a few short English paragraphs or bullet points that hit the key points in a way the boss can read quickly.

On the other hand, if findings of weeks of research are being detailed, that five-page report might be necessary for the immediate supervisor or a teammate who needs to know about the process. But if those results are being shared with another department, it might make more sense to convey only the key takeaways or action items in a PowerPoint presentation.

Knowing and choosing the correct format for a given piece of English writing—based on the goals and intended audience—will give the appropriate amount and type of space to share what is needed, and it’ll set the reader’s expectations correctly as well. Going back to the earlier example, if the manager sees a Slack message, they’ll expect that to take at most a few minutes to read, but if they are sent a long document, they’ll be prepared to receive a lot of English information (and might hold off on reading until they have the time they need to digest it).

4. Outline Before writing

Especially when something longer or particularly important is being written, outlining beforehand can lead to a stronger finished project and make the process smoother. The best way to outline will depend on the personal preferences and what is being written.

In most cases, it is wanted to divide the outline into sections (whether those sections indicate chapters, paragraphs, slides, or anything else) and note what the purpose of each section is. Why is it being included and what question is this section answering for the reader? Once that is known, it can be quickly noted what English information is needed to go in this section of the piece. As an outline is being made, the order of the sections should be checked to make sense. Would someone need a bit of info or context currently slated for a later section to understand what is being said here? Move that info or section up in the outline.

If there are several points that should be hit but don’t know in what order or how they go together, an outline can be even more helpful. Each key point should be written down in a way that’s easy to move around—for example, a bulleted list in a Word or Google doc or even individual index cards—and BY grouping similar and related points together should be started. Then, these groupings should be organized in a way that flows logically. If there is doubt about what the key points are, the same exercise can be done with all of the smaller pieces of info which are wanted to include and form the key points once seen how all the information goes together.

5. Being Aware of the Audience and the Appropriate Tone for English Writing

To communicate well through writing, it’s essential to find out who will be reading and what sort of language is suitable.

The formality of language should be considered—if the writer is slacking on a teammate, he/she might be able to be more relaxed in his/her tone and word choice than when he/she is emailing a client or preparing a presentation for stakeholders. In most professional situations the emoji should be skipped and using multiple punctuation marks should be avoided unless the situation calls for it. And it should not be written in all caps unless it is meant to yell.

Before writing, the knowledge level of the audience should be considered as it relates to the English topic. If the audience is aware of the situation, they [may] not need a great deal of detail. For example, if the writer is updating other members of the engineering team on a feature that is coded, the tech jargon can be used and the background is skipped, but if it is being written about the new feature in a blog post for customers, it might be needed to explain things a bit more thoroughly, choose more common English words, and explicitly state why it matters to them.

Before finishing any piece of English writing, time should be taken to reread it while accounting for the audience’s point of view. it should be kept in mind that how the email is intended may not be how it’s perceived. The tone is difficult to convey over text, especially humor—and it is not wanted to imply an attitude that is not meant. If it is being responded to an email chain, writing a comment on an ongoing thread, or in any way continuing a conversation, it should be tried to mirror the tone of the messages.

6. Pay Attention to the Mechanics of the Writing

Here are a few basic guidelines to keep in mind that will help make almost anything that is written easier to read and understand:

1.Complex English words should not be used when simple words will do. If it looks like someone is using the thesaurus function every few English words, it’s likely to distract the reader or make them lose focus. It will also end up with a disjointed tone, and there is the risk of someone not understanding the point which is wanted to get across.

2.The sentences should vary. If all the English sentences are a similar length or the same structure is followed, the writing can become a slog to read. It becomes boring when everything appears the same.

3, Specific English words and phrasing should be used. Whenever possible, it should be exactly stated what is meant rather than using vague English words like “things” or English phrases like “and so on.” The practice will make the writing stronger and easier to follow.

4.Repetition should be avoided. When writing and speaking, it’s usual to say the same thing many times in a little bit different way. Repetition can unnecessarily pad the writing and cause people’s attention to be distracted.

5.Filler words and filtering language should be eliminated. Words like “just” and “that” are often unneeded to get the point across and weigh down the writing. A look should also be taken at any English adverbs and adjectives which are used to see if a stronger, more specific English noun or verb will do the trick. Similarly, filtering language like “I think” or “it seems like” can weaken the message and make the writer sound less confident.

6.The reader should be guided through each of the points. As the writer moves from one topic to the next, the transition should be smooth. If the last paragraph is talking about a project which has been completed last week and then jumps right to describing an upcoming project without a transition, the reader is likely to get confused. And for every new point, it should be assured that it’s clear to the reader why the writer is bringing it up and how it connects to the overall topic.

7. Getting Feedback on the Writing

If someone is looking to improve his/her English writing skills, getting opinions from others about how he/she is currently doing can be extremely helpful. It might not be realized that it tends to use the wrong form of “possessive pronouns” or that sentences are way too long. But someone else might. It’s also common for individuals to use the same English words and phrases over and over without realizing it. Similarly, it might be thought that the writing is clear and to the point, but a reader might feel like there’s key context missing. As the feedback is gotten from multiple people or on multiple pieces of writing, the attention must be paid to any comments or critiques which are gotten more than once and focus on that area first.

A teammate, manager, or someone else whose opinion is trusted must be asked to look at something which has been written and ask what would make the writing stronger. (If it’s someone who is working with, it might be easiest to ask them for writing feedback on something they have to read anyway).

Depending on what kind of writing is being looked to work on, it might also be possible to join a writing group or community where people trade writing and critique one another. The writing workshops (both online and in-person) can be found through universities and another community program—they often cost money but come with an experienced instructor or facilitator—or (usually free) writing groups online can be found. Meetup.com and professional organizations are great places to start the search.

8. Proofreading

No matter what is being written, taking a last look to check for any typos or mistakes can save a lot of headaches in the long run. Did the writer contradict himself/herself somewhere or leave the verb out of an English sentence? Anything which is written must be read out loud if possible. Sometimes things look OK on a screen, but when it is tried to say them, it is realized something’s not right. In a similar vein, it might also be printed and corrected on paper. Often this is enough to see the writing in a different way, making it easier to spot errors. If the writing has higher stakes or the impression it makes on the reader matters a lot, it should be tried to get someone else to read it as well.

9. Using Tech Tools as Aids—Not Substitutes

There are a lot of programs and plug-ins that are designed to “correct” the writing, such as the WritingProAid program, the Sapling program, the Grammarly program, and even the spelling and English grammar checkers made into word processors. These instruments can make it easier to write well. But they shouldn’t be the one source of truth. A computer program is inclined to miss key contexts that human readers would discern. None of these instruments should stand in for a complete proofreading. As a professional editor, tools like this are used to call attention to possible errors, but the suggestions should be always looked at before accepting them and considering whether they’re correct or clear. The errors should also be looked at carefully for the tools didn’t catch at all. A computer program can easily miss homophone mix-ups, tense switches between English sentences, incorrect English word choices, and other issues. And sometimes it may be needed to write in a style these tools aren’t programmed to support. For instance, when a text is being written about investing, stock tickers and common financial abbreviations must be marked as errors that can be detected by the program.

3.Speaking

Speaking is a mutual process of creating meaning that incorporates manufacturing and getting and processing English information

The four elements of speaking skills

1.English vocabulary:

To develop English speaking skills for academic purposes and as means of language instruction, it is firstly needed to know the right words. English vocabulary development begins in childhood. As it is learned to describe the world around and communicate the needs. It progresses from single English words to sentences when children are 2 or 3, at which point they will normally have a vocabulary of 150-300 words.

English vocabulary development is where students understand the meanings and pronunciations of English words necessary for language instruction. When they discern what a word means, they can look it into the dictionary to see what the word or sentence means. It is so important so they can keep up a conversation. If they figure out what the other person is saying and they know what vocabulary to say in response, they are halfway there to communicating efficiently.

Was it known that to be considered fluent in the English language, it is needed to have a vocabulary of around 10,000 words?

2.English grammar:

It may be thought that English grammar is something that is only needed for written language. But English grammar includes lots of important areas for spoken language such as an understanding of tenses and the correct way to structure sentences. English grammar helps to convey information in a way that the listener will recognize and understand.

3.English pronunciation:

Understanding how to correctly pronounce English words is another important element of speaking skills for academic purposes. Pronunciation of English words can be learned by listening to those around, such as parents, friends, and teachers. English pronunciation varies from country to country, and even city to city!

A lot of this comes from phonemic awareness. It involves understanding the small units that make up English spoken language. English can be completely different in comparison with other languages. Some phonemes might not be in ESL students’ native languages and children’s minds are trained to categorize phonemes in their primary language, so it can become confusing. Developing this ability in English can originate from playing language games and utilizing songs and poems to reiterate rhythm and repetition. Phonics is where students begin to notice the relationship between the sounds of spoken language and graphemes which are the letters and spellings indicating sounds in written language.

4.English fluency:

English fluency in spoken language is something that naturally develops as children go through school, as they are using and practicing English speaking skills every day. Reading widely (and out loud) is a good way to improve English fluency as it introduces children to new English vocabulary and reinforces their knowledge of the spoken language.

English fluency is the ability to hear English words and understand them straight away. If they observe a word jotted down, they can read it aloud and pronounce it correctly. Ways to develop this include guiding the students to read passages out loud. The students can also be gotten to read aloud in front of the class. It builds their confidence and also helps them to enunciate better.

The more fluent the students are in English, the more interesting, exciting, and insightful conversations they can have.

4.Listening

Listening is the ability to precisely get and interpret messages in the communication process. Listening is pivotal to all efficient communication.

English listening skills help understand the meaning of conversations, lectures, and everything which is heard. The skill has a tremendous effect on the level of the language because it is directly related to the ability to understand the English text and affects other skills as well. Like English reading skills, listening skills are often formed in the early stages of language learning, and mastering them leads to strengthening English writing and speaking skills. Through this skill, it is possible to get familiar with how English words are pronounced, their right pronunciation, the emphasis of phrases, and how to transfer meaning in the target language in general, and somehow that language becomes part of the mental world.

English listening skills not only help understand the world and people but also have a major impact on social skills. People who are great at this skill can speak English more rapidly and comfortably. In other words, the confidence and ability to express what is on the mind can be increased by strengthening the listening skills, due to the familiarity with the general procedures of the target language during speaking.

In fact, English listening skills develop understanding and inference, causing to break down what is heard into understandable parts of the mind to make it easier to understand its overall meaning. By mastering this skill, what is heard can be interpreted and connections can be made between sentences and concepts. It means that the mind gradually becomes able to process the input information accurately and can even discern the underlying meaning of a phrase.

How to improve English listening skills?

Improving English listening skills is almost easier and more accessible than other skills. The language can be completely mastered free of charge and alone. To do this, it is needed to make the most of the resources which are accessible daily and practice daily and frequently with real focus and willpower.

Here are eight ways to improve the English listening skills at home that continuing to do in a short period of time can dramatically increase the skills:

1- Watching English movies and series

One of the most common ways to improve English listening skills is to watch English movies and TV series. In fact, by watching English movies and TV series, the comprehension ability can be strengthened and the English-speaking world will be understood more profoundly. It is noticeable that people who spend a lot of time watching English movies and series, have a better command of the English language. However, it is good to know that watching English movies and TV series to learn English is very different from normal. Normally general understanding of the target language can be gained while using a few simple techniques can specifically improve the English listening skills.

The most important technique to follow in this regard is to choose the favorite movie or series. Watching it for the first time with subtitles and just paying attention to the general understanding of the story or the meaning of the English words is the first step. Then the same English movie or series should be watched for the second time with English subtitles, and this time be careful with the pronunciation of words and phrases. For the third time, the movie or series should be watched without any subtitles, and try to pay attention to what English words people emphasize when saying a sentence, for example? (It is called stress in English) or what does the tone of people have to do with body and face movements? The eyes can be even closed and listen to that conversation again and try to understand the inner feelings of the characters (feelings of happiness, longing, sadness, anger, etc.).

The question that many people face is what English movie or series should they watch that will further enhance their English listening skills? If there are doubts about choosing the desired English movie and series, the following list can be used:

List of suitable films to strengthen English listening skills as an English language requirement

1-Forrest Gump

If someone has never watched this American masterpiece starring Tom Hanks and Robin Wright, it must be put on the list today! The story of this film is about a boy whose IQ is a little lower than normal but has a great soul. The story goes on with Forrest’s life adventures, the audience laughs with him, gets sad, and learns important lessons. The film is very suitable for all people who want to learn English, especially those who are still at the beginner level because the main character uses very simple English words and the speed of expression is quite understandable.

2-The King’s Speech

What movie is better for strengthening listening skills than the story of a person who wants to cure his stuttering? The film is based on a true story based on the life of King George (now Queen Elizabeth’s father) who tries to overcome his stuttering problem. With the help of this film, the audience can get acquainted with the English pronunciation of words of the King of England.

3.My Fair Lady

Musical films often have their fans, and most people may not be willing to watch them. But this beautiful film starring Audrey Hepburn can teach the difference between standard English and slang. The story of this film is about a traveling florist who is trained by a professor of linguistics to become a distinguished lady with standard English. Watching it can be a good exercise for people who are in the intermediate and upper levels and want to learn more about intonation in English.

4-Clueless

High school movies are not only fun and romantic content, but also a great platform for learning English slang terms and phrases. Since teens and young adults do not speak a standard, formal language, a variety of English idioms can be learned by watching this genre of film and learning more about American English slang. It is one of the most famous films in the American teen genre, which despite many years of its production, is still one of the most popular.

5-Dead Poets Society

Perhaps there are people who, in addition to learning the language, want to see a valuable work among cinematic works. In this case, if they have not seen this movie yet, it should be on their list right now. The Dead Poets Society, starring the memorable Robin Williams, is one of the most popular and at the same time the bitterest films in the history of cinema, which can be watched many times without getting tired. It is suitable for all people who want to get acquainted with a more literary and professional level in English.

6- 500 Days of Summer

The romantic comedy genre is probably the choice of many people when choosing an English movie to watch. The excitement of romantic relationships between the characters along with the humor in the story makes watching these English movies a lot of fun. If someone is interested in the romantic comedy genre, this film is a good choice for learning English. Many English adjectives and words can be learned through the main character’s monologue or strengthen the English listening skills by paying attention to the characters’ body language and tone in conversations.

7-The Social Network

A true story about one of the most important phenomena of the present century: Facebook! Through this film, it is possible to become acquainted with the story of the beginning of this popular social network, and will even get to know a lot about the character of Mark Zuckerberg. The film has been included in the list of suitable English language learning films for numerous reasons. First of all, the general language of the film, while using specialized vocabulary related to technology, is slang, in other words, not only does it make it possible to get acquainted with specialized vocabulary, but it is not difficult to understand the general content because it includes people’s everyday conversations. The film also takes place in an academic setting, that is, among the younger generation who use their English terms and expressions, and in this respect is a very important source for learning English idioms and slang. Most importantly, the characters speak relatively quickly, so if someone is intermediate and advanced, it is possible to improve their English listening skills by paying attention to how sentences and phrases are connected.

8.Notting Hill

Almost every language learner knows that there are different dialects in English such as British, American, Australian, etc., each with its characteristics. But is a movie with both accents imaginable? Notting Hill is an American movie starring Julia Roberts who travels to London and meets Hugh Grant at an English bookstore. In addition to the charms of the romantic relationship between the two great stars of American and British cinema, the contradictions and differences between the American and British dialects are well evident in their conversations and can be a great exercise to get acquainted with both dialects.

9-TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD

Another literary and cinematic masterpiece of history is « Killing a Mockingbird ». The film is based on the famous English novel about the situation of black Americans, the situation in the United States during the Great Depression, and its judicial system. The most important aspect of this film that helps to strengthen the listening skills is the presence of different American accents. The accent of poor blacks can be easily compared with that of a lawyer and the differences can be noticed.

10-Australia

Most language learners are not familiar with the Australian dialect and are unaware of its features. One of the best ways to get acquainted with this dialect is to watch Australian movies, but American and British cinemas are more famous and popular than Australian ones. However, even if there is no need to learn this accent, it is recommended that watch several famous Australian movies to get acquainted with those accents. One of the best choices in this field is the film « Australia ». The romantic movie starring Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman has an interesting and exciting story and watching it will definitely be enjoyable.

2. Listen to the podcast daily

Podcasts have not been common in cyberspace for a long time and have drawn the attention of a large audience. However, the pleasure of listening to them during the day cannot be ignored. But it is interesting to know that podcasts can play a very important role in improving listening skills. Just several suitable podcasts to be selected and one episode to listen to every day. There is no need to discern the meaning of all the words spoken, but the aim is to become more familiar with the English language and get accustomed to the tone and sound of its words. The favorite episodes can be listened to over and over again and repeated the sentences to master them well and improve their speaking skills.

3.Listen to English music

Music plays a key role in the lives of many people, in fact, most people are accustomed to listening to their favorite music while doing their daily chores such as driving, exercising, walking, cooking, and so on. It is noteworthy to say that listening to English-language music can have a significant effect on improving English listening skills. The most can be gotten out of listening to English music with a few simple techniques. First of all, the music must be played in the free time and be permitted to act as a background sound so that the ear gets used to hearing it. After a while, the lyrics of the song must be found through an internet search and when listening to the song, the attention must be paid to the lyrics and how each English word is pronounced simultaneously. With adequate practice, simultaneously the English text can be read and memorized without the text along with the song to stabilize the pronunciation of the English words in the mind.

4. Listen to an English audiobook

English audiobooks are one of the newest kinds that have become a favorite and are very popular among people who do not have the chance or time to read English printed books. It is interesting to note that listening to English audiobooks can greatly improve English listening skills. Only English books should be chosen and listened to that suit the level of the person daily. Like podcasts, there is no need to know the meaning of all the available English words, but the goal is to completely discern the content and get acquainted with the way the sentences are expressed.

5. the audio files that are heard must be written.

It is not important a podcast; an audiobook or music is being listened to. In any case, one of the best exercises to improve English listening skills is note-taking. In the first place, writing should be started to test the English skills and then, compare to the original text, notice the flaws or mistakes, and correct them. It is also a good idea to write down important terms, English words, or grammar when hearing them so that they can be used in the writing or conversation.

6- Paying attention to the whole in the initial stages and the later stages of details

Many people believe that listening to an audio file is difficult and they do not understand a significant part of it. It should be kept in mind that each skill grows gradually over time, so it should never have been expected to learn the whole text in the first place without any problems. In the early stages, it should be content with just understanding the whole subject and gradually turn the attention to details and words with daily practice. For example, if an audiobook is listened to, for the first time, just attention must be paid to the story. For the second time, all the words and phrases which are unfamiliar must be written down, searched, and memorized. The third time which there is a complete understanding of what is being said, the attention must be paid to how it is pronounced, the pitch of the sounds, the accent, the tone of voice, and the pronunciation of the words. Ultimately, everything which is heard can be repeated to improve speaking skills.

7. Listen to various accents

As it is known, there are various accents in English like American, British, Australian, etc. To ameliorate the English listening skills, it is better to become familiar with all these dialects and figure out their discrepancies. The listening should be then put into audio files in various accents on the agenda, especially if it is to prepare for an IELTS test. For this purpose, news channels or documentaries produced by different English-speaking countries can be used.

8- Strengthening English listening skills through social networks

Nowadays, with the emergence of social networks like Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, new educational tools have popped out. One of the topics that are taught for free through networks such as YouTube and Instagram. Listening skills can be improved from home without access to special equipment through YouTube channels and Instagram pages.

Parts of speech

Every word is a part of speech. The term “part of speech” suggests the role a word has in a sentence. And like any workplace or TV show with an ensemble cast, these roles were produced to work together.

The 8 parts of the speech

1. Nouns

A noun is a word that is used to name a person, place, concept, or object. Essentially, anything that names a “thing” is a noun, whether the topic is about a basketball court, London, or self-preservation.

Nouns are bifurcated into two types: common nouns and proper nouns. Common nouns are general names for things, such as plants and game shows. Proper nouns are particular names for individual things, like Mars and Jeopardy!

2. Pronouns

Pronouns are the words that are used as a replacement for special nouns when the reader or listener knows which particular noun is referred to.

It might be said “Jimmy was meant to be here at eight,” then be followed with “he’s always late; next time I’ll tell him to be here a half-hour earlier.”

Instead of saying Jimmy’s name three times in a row, she and her were substituted and sentences remained grammatically right. Pronouns are bifurcated into a range of categories.

3. Adjectives

Adjectives are the words that modify nouns. How to describe a movie to a friend who’s never seen it?

He/she might be told that the movie was funny, entertaining, and well-written. When the movie is being described with these words, the adjectives are being used. An adjective can come right before the noun it’s describing (I have a white dog), but it doesn’t have to. Sometimes, adjectives are at the end of a sentence (my dog is white).

4. Verbs              

Go! Be astounding! Run as fast as possible! Win the match! Congratulations to every player who put in the work and competed!

These bolded words are verbs. Verbs are words that modify special actions, like running, competing, and being amazing.

Not all verbs indicate literal actions, though. Verbs that refer to emotions or states of being, like to like and to be, are referred to as nonaction verbs. Conversely, the verbs that do refer to literal actions are referred to as action verbs.

5. Adverbs

An adverb is a word that modifies an adjective, a verb, or another adverb. Like following examples:

Here’s an example: I entered the room hurriedly. Hurriedly is modifying how the person entered (verb) the room.

Here’s another example: A cheetah is naturally faster than a lion. Naturally is modifying how regularly a cheetah is faster (adjective) than a lion.

6. Prepositions

Prepositions describe the relationship between the other words in a sentence.

Here’s an example: I left my bike leaning in the garage. In this sentence, in is the preposition because it describes where the bike is left.

Here’s another example: She put the pasta in the refrigerator. Without the preposition in, it is not known where the pizza is.

7. Conjunctions

Conjunctions make it probable to make complex sentences that convey multiple ideas.

I like marinara sauce. I like alfredo sauce. I don’t like puttanesca sauce. Each of these three sentences conveys a visible idea. There’s nothing wrong with listing the preferences like this, but it’s not the most effective way to do it.

It must be considered instead: I like marinara sauce and alfredo sauce, but I don’t like puttanesca sauce.

In this sentence, and, but are the two conjunctions that connect the ideas.

8. Articles

An apple. The brick house. An amusing experience. These bolded words are referred to as articles.

Like nouns, articles are divided into two flavors: definite articles and indefinite articles. And just like the two types of nouns, the type of article which is used depends on how special it is needed to be about the thing which is being discussed.

Grammar

12 Basic Rules of Grammar as an important part of the English language program

1.Nouns and Pronouns

The first noun rule is about the spelling alterations in plural forms: consonant –y alters to consonant –ies as in « flies, » and nouns resulting in glottal sounds such as « sh » take –es. Pronouns, which take the place of nouns, make the second rule: pronouns must go back clearly to an antecedent. For instance, in the sentence « Jimmy drove her car and parked it in the lot, » the pronoun « it » visibly refers to the antecedent « car. » The third rule is about a usual pronoun mistake: « who » vs. « whom. » « Whom » is right when it is substituting the object of a sentence. To specify the right pronoun, substitute it with « he » or « him. » For instance, « For whom should I vote? » is right since « Must I take a vote for him? » is right, not  » Should I vote for he? »

2.Verbs

The first verb rule is very essential: every sentence must have a verb or action word. The second verb rule is that the tense of the sentence stems from the verb itself. For example, the present-tense construction « is blowing » shows an action occurring right now — the wind is blowing this minute. Conversely, the past tense « blew » shows the wind blew in the past some time, while « will blow » determines future action. The third verbs rule stipulates that the verb and subject must agree, meaning a singular subject such as « wind » takes a singular form of the verb — « blows » instead of the plural « blow. »

3.Adjectives and Adverbs

First, adjectives delineate nouns or pronouns while adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. One common error is related to utilizing adjectives instead of adverbs. Because adverbs describe other adverbs, the right phrase is « he sings really well » instead of « really well, » because « really » is describing the adverb « well. » Likewise, « He sings good » is wrong because « good » is an adjective being utilized to describe a verb: how he sings. The third rule stipulates that the –ly of adverbs never gets fallen in the comparison form. « He talks more quietly » is right, and « He talks quieter » is not; « quieter » is the comparative form of the adjective « quiet. »

4.Punctuation

With punctuation, the first grammar rule is that commas appear in special places; for example, between two complete sentences joined by a conjunction such as « and » or « but. » Second, commas also segregate nonessential descriptive phrases. For example, the phrase in the following sentence describing the dog is unnecessary: « The dog, who has six toes, belongs to the neighbor. » In that sentence, eliminating the phrase does not importantly affect the meaning as it would in the following: « Cats who have six toes are fictitious cats. » For the third punctuation rule, apostrophes show contractions, as in « don’t, » and ownership as in « Tom’s hat. » Still, apostrophes do not represent ownership in pronouns, which is why « it’s » always means « it is, » not ownership.

The adjectives

1.comparative and superlative adjectives

2. Irregular plus superlative

3. Comparison with than

4. As + adjective + as

5. Not as + adjective + Adjectives (12)

6. What is an adjective?

7. How to use adjectives

 8.The order of adjectives

9.Comparisons of quantity showing a difference

10. Comparison of quantity showing no difference

11. Nationalities

Adverbs (13)

1. What is an adverb?

 2.How to form adverbs

3. Comparative and superlative adverbs

4. Adverbs of manner

5. Adverbs of place

6. Adverbs of degree

7. List of adverbs of degree

8. Adverbs of certainty

9. Viewpoint and commenting adverbs

10. Interrogative adverbs

11. Relative adverbs

12. Adverbs of time

13. Fronted Adverbials

Determiners (20)

1. Determiners

2. The definite article: ‘the’

3. Exceptions to employing the definite article ‘the’

4. Indefinite articles

5. This, that, these, those

6. Possessive pronouns and adjectives

7. Quantifiers

8. Numbers

9. Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns

10. A few, few, a little, little

11. Some and any

 12.Compound nouns with ‘some’, ‘any’, ‘no’

13. Graded quantifiers

14. Enough + noun

15 Distributives – all, both, half

16. Pre-determiners: such, what, rather, quite

17. Defining words: which, whose

18. Question words: which, what, whose

19. Difference words: other, another

20. Distributives: each, every, either, neither

Direct and Indirect Speech (7)

1. Direct and indirect speech

 2.Tense changes with reported speech

3. Reported speech – alteration of time and place

4. Question forms and reported speech

5. Orders, requests, and suggestions

6. Hopes, intentions, and promises

7. Summary of reporting verbs

Gerund and Present Participle (6)

1. ‘-ing’ form: Gerund and Present Participle

2. Present Participle

3. The Gerund

4. Verbs followed by the gerund

5. Gerund or infinitive?

6. Gerund or infinitive: Where there is a discrepancy in meaning

Infinitive (10)

 1.What is the infinitive?

2. The infinitive: Using the infinitive

3. Zero infinitive

4. Negative infinitive

5. Infinitive after question words

6. Other forms of the infinitive

7. Verbs accompanied by the infinitive

8. Verbs accompanied by a noun and infinitive

9. Verbs and infinitive

10 Gerund or infinitive?

Interrogative (7)

1. The interrogative form

 2.Question tags

3. Question mark

4. Interrogative pronouns

5. Question forms and reported speech

6. Question words: which, what, whose

7. Interrogative adverbs

Nouns (8)

 1.The possessive form of nouns

2. What are nouns?

3. The plural of nouns

4. Countable and uncountable nouns

5. Nationalities

6. Compound nouns

7. Nouns and using capital letters

6. Nationalities

Passive (4)

1. Passive voice

2. How to form the passive?

3. ‘To get’ or ‘to have’ something done

4. Active tenses and passive equivalents

Possessive (1)

1. The possessive form of nouns

Pronouns (1)

 1.Interrogative pronouns

Punctuation (13)

1. Introduction to punctuation

2. Brackets and parentheses

3. Capital letters and punctuation

4. Hyphen and dash

5. Apostrophe

6. Quotation marks

 7.Colon and semi-colon

 8.Question mark

9. Exclamation mark

10. Nouns and using capital letters

11. Period or full stop

12. Comma

13. Capital letters

Relative Clauses (4)

 1.Relative clauses

2. How to form relative clauses

3. Placing prepositions in relative clauses

 4.Non-defining relative clauses

To Get (2)

1. To get + direct object

2. To get

Verbs and Tenses (40)

1. The interrogative form

2. Question tags

3. Perfect continuous conditional

4. What are verb tenses?

5. List of verb tenses in English

 6.Simple Present

7. Simple Past

8. Present Continuous or Present Progressive

9. Past Continuous

10. Present Perfect

11. Present Perfect or Simple Past?

12. Past Perfect Tense

13. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

14. Present Perfect Continuous

15. Present perfect with adverbs such as ‘ever’, ‘never’, ‘already’, ‘yet’

16.Utilizing for and since with the Present Perfect

17. Future verb tenses

18. Simple Future

19. Future with present continuous

20. Simple present for future events

21. Future with going to

 22.Future Continuous

23. Future Perfect

24. IF and Conditional Tenses

25. Type 1 Conditional

26. Type 2 Conditional

27. Present Continuous Conditional

28. Type 3 Conditional

29. Zero Conditional

30. To get + direct object

31. To get

32. Verbs accompanied by the infinitive

33. Verbs accompanied by a noun and infinitive

34. Verbs and infinitive

35. Active tenses and passive equivalents

36. Summary of reporting verbs

37. Phrasal Verbs Explanation

38. Phrasal Verbs List

39. Irregular Verbs in English

40. Irregular Verbs Grouped

Vocabulary

Vocabulary (which comes from the Latin for « name, ») suggests all the words in a language that are discerned by a specific person or group of people. There are two chief types of vocabulary: active and passive. An active vocabulary comprises the words understood and used in daily speaking and writing. Passive vocabulary consists of words that may be recognized but is not generally used in the course of normal communication

10 best ways to ameliorate the Vocabulary Skills

Building a strong vocabulary over time can let communicate the thoughts better, orally or in writing, to avoid bewilderment and get clarity. The vocabulary skills can be built by recognizing a learning technique that works and can continually practice.

Why is a strong vocabulary significant?

Good communication skills are needed to work efficiently with others in person, through email, or by other tools. Knowing which words to utilize and when is a significant part of being a strong communicator. Building vocabulary is one easy way to ameliorate communication skills. Having a huge vocabulary can assist everybody to choose the right word or phrase required for the situation, allowing them to easily transmit ideas, concerns, decisions, and more.

A strong vocabulary can also augment the confidence and the ability to express ideas, whether by giving a presentation or meeting with a customer to deliver a proposal. While building the vocabulary, it is significant to include both general terms and those connected to the industry to develop a strong foundation.

these ideas can be tried to build the vocabulary as an important part of the English language program:

1. Learn the roots of words

To build a dependable foundation for vocabulary, it’s useful to discern the roots of words. Many words have a common root and a prefix or suffix that assist to specify what the meaning might be. For example, when a word incorporates the root “duc,” a Latin word that means “to make or lead,” it can be assumed that the root refers to that Latin definition. The root can be seen in words like “produce” or “reduce.”

2. Concentrate on practical terms and words

Some industries have various definitions for words or employ completely new words, which is named jargon. If the coworkers and others in a field adopt technical jargon, it should be tried to focus on building the vocabulary to include these words. For example, some industries utilize the word “stand-up” to mean a short daily meeting.

The search can be also done for clearer ways to express ideas instead of depending on clichés that may be hard for others to discern or skew the meaning. For example, instead of mentioning “get the foot in the door,” the term “diversify the opportunities” can be utilized.

3. Create word associations

Word associations can assist anyone to remember specific words or phrases. For example, the word “gargantuan” means huge. A sequence with a word, such as tiny, small, medium, large, giant, and huge can be created. Forming associations can assist to remember words that are being learned with more comfort. These associations can also guarantee anyone remembers the word for a long-term.

4. Complete regular vocabulary tests

At the end of each week, a quiz that incorporates the vocabulary words, root words, or other language facets can be created that are being studied. Taking a quiz or test can improve the ability to sustain new words. Every time a new root or word is learned, a flashcard should be created. On one side of the card, the word must be written, and on the opposite side, the definition should be written. Recalling the definition from the words and vice versa can be practiced.

5. Take a writing class

As the vocabulary is being built, the writing skills can also be improved, which will be beneficial in the professional life. Taking a writing course online or at a local adult educational institution that includes assignments and tests can assist to boost the ability to communicate efficiently through writing. After completing a writing class, notes must be taken on any new words which ARE learned throughout the course.

6. Create groups of words

As new words are being learned, they can be grouped by meaning. By creating these groups, patterns can be recognized that make it easier to include the words in the daily speech. For example, words like affirmative, efficient, and decisive might be learned, which all mean positive. By grouping these words, it becomes easier to remember their general meanings and how to utilize them in speech.

7. Identify word nuances

Some words have alternative definitions in various contexts. An instance of nuance is the word “frame,” which could have different meanings depending on the scenario. A frame could be a border that encircles a picture or window, or it could mean to outline or emphasize a certain physical feature. Recognizing and discerning these nuances in language will assist in better knowing how to utilize the words which have been learned in communication with others.

8. Recognize words that share meanings

Various words often have the same or similar meanings. A list of word groups can be created to assist to make new and unique statements in writing and speech. Some words have identical meanings but don’t always replace one another, so it’s useful to review definitions of similar words before utilizing them. By changing the word choices in the communication, it will appear more refined and professional.

9. Diversify what to read

Most people devote at least some of their time to reading every day. Expanding the reading choices can assist to build a stronger vocabulary since new words from various writers can be seen who have different writing patterns. Adding new texts and choices to the reading list can also contribute.

10. Edit what is written

When writing any professional text is finished, such as an email or cover letter, content should be reviewed for recurring words or phrases. Using expanded vocabulary should be considered to substitute words that are used repetitively throughout the document. By editing the writing, clarity, style, and tone can be improved.

Which English test should I take?

A general English test such as IELTS, TOEFL, PTE, and recently Duolingo English test is a good choice for students wanting to study in an English-speaking country or taking a course where English is the dominant language. Of course, the Duolingo English test has gained remarkable popularity as one of the second language tests. An English language center in universities is the best place to learn English as an international student. An English language center in English-language speaking universities provides the best opportunity for an international student to learn English academic. The successful completion of academic English courses is important in university preparation for students. Students should take the successful completion of these academic English courses seriously. Cambridge English qualifications are also great exams that make learning English pleasurable. Cambridge English guarantees continuous progress. Pearson Test (PTE academic) is another common English language that is welcomed by students since the Pearson test (PTE academic) is easier compared with exams like IELTS and TOEFL.

Do you need to take a language test and improve your English for university admission?

Most American, Canadian, and European colleges, and universities require international students to prove their English language skills for admission and continuing education, usually by taking an English language proficiency test. English language testing requirement (English language proficiency test) may be ignored in specific circumstances for continuing education, but most universities of the world require international students to present international exam scores such as IELTS, TOEFL, and DUOLINGO for getting admission. So improvement of the English language proficiency level is necessary to achieve the required score to get admitted to most universities of the world. The test center must be selected carefully because a good test center can affect the result of the exam. Taking an English exam is a part of university preparation. The minimum score for getting admission from Canadian universities for graduate studies is 6, while some of the Canadian universities accept 5.5 as the minimum score conditionally for graduate studies. The minimum score sometimes refers to the minimum overall score and sometimes to each band score, but mostly minimum overall score is intended.  But for a skilled visa, the minimum grade refers to each band score.  

How recent do your test scores need to be?

The validity of the scores of the English test results depends on the policy of the universities but generally, most English test results are valid for up to 2 years. The validity of a test score is not stable. 

How do you register for classes?

The process of registration for classes is online and it is possible to easily and without wasting time apply online.

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